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Investing op amp frequency response in headphones

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investing op amp frequency response in headphones

Many headphones are only 8 ohms. Suppose you had an output signal level into the headphones of 1V you would need to supply up to 1V/8 ohms. Figure 33 – Final Board Layout of Dual Method Headphone Amplifier . Page Figure 34 – THD/IHD/Frequency Response Test Setup for Finalized Project . One is to invest in huge power amplifiers and massive speakers in order to of the frequency response curves of the player's amplifier and headphones. STAR CAPITAL FINANCE FOREX FACTORY You will need updated the latest of allowing teachers display hook driver scan, which found a couple of. Unified platform for look for paid subscription plans, the will be visible. No, Thunderbird Beach Resort does not reply to this. Based on the plist entries of.

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Investing op amp frequency response in headphones how to do forex trading

In an audiophile's quest to getting the best audio from his pair of headphones, he often encounters a time when a headphone amplifier is necessary.

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Investing op amp frequency response in headphones They claim it is suitable for 32 ohm cans, but apparently they have different criteria. Some of the better DSP effects can be rather addictive to many. Sigh, I really need to get a beginner's book in audio engineering Hmmm, I figured it couldn't be right. Connecting headphones with the following impedance will yield the best results with this amplifier. But the issue of damping and distortion are much less clear. One of the best what I have ever ridden!
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Compensated measurements show how significantly the frequency response deviates from a specific target. For this measurement, a straight line across is desirable, however it's important to understand which target is being used for the compensation. This is the same measurement as the previous raw graph, just using the Harman target as its compensation.

If we want the headphone to perfectly match this target, then we want it to measure like a flat line straight across here. Frequency response targets are usually devised in a way that imagines if a headphone's frequency response perfectly matches the target curve, it would sound 'neutral'.

However because there's no current consensus on what neutral is - at least for headphones - we have a number of potential target curves to choose from. When a measurement deviates from a flat line on a compensated graph, we need to know what the compensation target is in order for it to mean anything. This is generally why raw measurements are more useful, because it will show us meaningful information regardless what people prefer to use as a reference or 'neutral' target.

The most common reference target curve is the Harman target. This target was developed by Harman Research to best identify what kind of tuning in headphones people on average preferred. Compensations based on this target do happen to follow the general emphasis conferred by the gain factors for the human ear with a rise starting around 1khz , but with extra bass emphasis and an overall balanced sound for a wide variety of genres.

There are a few things to notice about this target curve. This area is where these ear-related gain factors start to impact and amplify the sound before it reaches the ear drum, and this is why an elevation in this region is desirable. Some communities refer to this effect as 'pinna gain', however the pinna flange itself is only one part of what contributes to the overall amplification. In other words, our brains normalize ear gain, and the absence of it in headphones will end up sounding muted and muffled by comparison.

There may also be a multitude of additional factors like the room, torso and head that contribute to certain expectations for what sounds 'normal' but t his is up for debate - more on that later. In any case, for those who don't like how significant the bass shelf is on the target, there's an earlier version of the Harman target published in has a more modest bass response, with slight differences to the upper mids and treble as well:.

There are likely a number of factors that come into play that account for the differences, but in both cases, this is a fairly safe target, and headphones tuned to this target will make most music sound good to most people. Strangely, very few open-back headphones match this target in the bass, but many high end headphones are getting closer and closer to this tuning rather than the more traditional diffuse field target discussed later on.

This target curve has been criticized in some circles, largely for its bass emphasis, and I personally also do find it to be too much for what I enjoy at least the bass shelf is too strong for me. The Harman research was conducted across a number of demographics that had different preferences, and yours may simply not align with the standard curve shown above.

This is generally not a problem because most tonal information in the bass is above 60hz anyway. It may be nice to have a sub-bass emphasis, but it's really not a problem if it doesn't match the target's suggested elevation. There are certain elements of the frequency response that should show a dip or elevation that will look like a deviation from the target, but the problem here is more to do with the target being strongly averaged than an issue with the headphone in question.

There are a number of reasons for this, like certain behaviors of headphones on measurement rigs - different headphone build styles and so on. In both cases the reader will have come to the wrong conclusion about the headphones in question. Some publications have addressed this problem by heavily smoothing the frequency response, but this is also misleading as it can make other aspects of a headphone's frequency response look better than it actually is.

The solution in my opinion is to ensure the reader doesn't scrutinize the more granular aspects of a headphone's frequency response, but rather take a wider view of the whole thing - or at least stick to various frequency ranges than individual ones. This is a matter of educating readers and providing key context for the measurements being presented.

A diffuse field target aims at a frequency response that's meant to emulate the way flat-measuring speakers would sound in a somewhat 'lively' room as opposed to an anechoic chamber. Unlike the Harman target, this doesn't base the result on consumer preference-based research.

A diffuse field target ends up being slightly brighter than compensations based on the Harman target, and doesn't have as much bass emphasis, but it's still warmer and more realistic than a Free Field target developed in a completely 'dead' room. Diffuse field has been a common target for many years, however more recently headphones have tended to aim for the extra bass emphasis of the consumer preference curve instead.

So which target should we prefer when considering a reference tuning? Or in other words, if we do want to represent the optimal frequency response as a flat line on a compensated graph, which compensation should we use? My answer to this question is that for now we should probably be using some version of the Harman target - at least for the mids and treble - and not the traditional diffuse field or free field targets - and I think there are good reasons why the consumer preference targets have been used for evaluation purposes.

For those of us who are outliers, it's our responsibility to understand where our preferences differ from the reference target, and then make conscious adjustments from there. An important concern about these consumer preference targets, however, is whether or not the bass shelf found in both the and Harman targets is appropriate and whether it should be included as part of the reference target or not.

As mentioned earlier, there may be an expectation for this that comes from other places, but it's not likely to be part of the brain's normalizing of physiological gain factors - at least this is what my current investigation into this subject has indicated. In my mind there are two ways of looking at the bass and lower mids issue. The first is to simply use what sounds best as the reference target. For me, this ends up being a combination of the Harman target for its bass response and the target for its upper mids and treble.

As a matter of representing a reference target this way, it may be useful for providing a target to EQ to to get it to what most people prefer , but perhaps less useful for showing how strong the bass is for a given headphone. Remember that on a compensated graph, the Harman target will cause most open-back headphones to look like they roll off in the bass, even though they're well extended all the way down to 20hz.

In these cases, these headphones just don't have the bass shelf suggested by the target. The second way to look at this is by saying we can ignore everything below the ear-related gain factors - so everything below 1khz. The main benefit to this approach is that when we see deviations in lower frequencies, we can assess whether that fits with our preferences. But with that said, I find there to be significant value in using a target that can also be helpful for those of us who want to EQ our headphones and get them to an optimal tuning - for what most people prefer.

This way these graphs can be suitable for anyone looking for a starting point. Sometimes there are also other reasons why a headphone will measure a certain way. In particular, many high end Audeze LCD headphones show a strong cut around 4khz. To my ear these headphones don't sound like they have as extreme of a dip as the measurement shows, and so this may just have to do with the headphone's design style and its interaction with measurement rigs.

Moreover, it's also imprudent to key in on specific recessions that may be there due to interactions with the physical ear like the khz dip that should exist for most headphones mentioned earlier. Are they also elevated to a similar level? If you look at the upper mids and treble, there are three notable elevations to consider here.

One at 4khz, one at around 8khz, and one at 11khz also note the dip around 9khz that should be there likely due to concha interaction. This is helped by the fact that these elevations are suitably wide, and this will often yield a smoother sound than if those elevations were narrow peaks.

For the most part the Clear has an agreeable frequency response, with perhaps a bit of weirdness in the treble. The first thing to notice is that it looks dipped around khz - at least relative to the target. This should be a bad thing, right? Leaving aside for a moment the question of why this looks a bit dipped, what we actually should consider here instead of just focusing on the dip is the relationship between khz and the lower range of khz, as well as its relationship to the range above it.

Notice how even in the target 3khz is higher than khz as well - not to the same degree, but there is a general similarity there. Then ask the question, how does this relationship in the frequency response impact the music I might be listening to? This is because the relationship between the 8khz elevation and the ranges on either side of it is not as smooth as it ideally could be. Congestion — Something sounds congested when it the sound is muffled and not very dynamic.

Compressed — This can mean 2 things. There is compressed data and compressed music. Compressed data means that a file has been shrunk in size. This is lossless compression where the file can be reconstructed to its original size and then can be used. In Audio there are many lossless formats.

One can also compress files by leaving out data which can not be recovered later. The most well known lossy compression files are JPG for pictures and MP3 for music but there are many more formats. During the compression encoding one can usually select how much one throws away.

Usually this is done in studios to get a more even sound. There is a fine line between this being done craft-fully usually for each instrument its own compression and it being overdone in dramatic ways. This sadly is very common for most popular recordings. Crisp — is another description of having clarity , an exaggerated form is shrill. The opposite is laid back. An exaggerated form is Muffled.

The opposite is Shrill. This is not always visible in the frequency response but could be visible in Cumulative Spectral Decay Waterfall plots. When there is some clarity and no mid bass emphasis most people describe the decay as fast. Depth — How far away the instruments spacing is from back to front. In headphones this is not always perceived as such.

Sometimes a gradual downward slope between Hz and 10kHz can also give a sense of depth imitating a greater distance from an actual music performance. Detail — When something sounds detailed the frequency band between 1kHz and 3kHz is usually audibly flat or neutral and is more or less flat between 3kHz and 10kHz or has some mild emphasis a few dB or a peak in that part of the frequency range.

An exaggerated form is Edgy, Sharpness, Sibilant. Dry — Too little reverb or echo is used. Opposite of lively. It is the opposite of a relaxed, muffled or compressed sound. When a recording is truly dynamic there is a substantial difference between soft sounds and peaks. You need to play the music loud to hear small details. Funnily enough when you can hear small details already at lower playback levels the sound is actually compressed yet many say, incorrectly, this is a dynamic sound.

The word dynamic is also used to describe a type of headphone driver the most common type where a magnet and voice-coil is used to create sound. Then there is also dynamic range in an electrical sense. This describes how many difference in decibel there is between the signal and the noise and distortion products. And finally Dynamic Range as in DR-rating. This describes how the difference between the average levels and peak levels in a recording.

Usually the recordings with DR ratings between 10 and 20 sound more realistic than recordings between 2 and 5. The opposite a dip can be described as lacking Finesse, dis-attached Treble. Finesse — This describes fine and delicate details heard in music.

The opposite of finesse is grain y. Forward — When voices and instruments pop-out. This usually is caused by a mild peak in the 1kHz to 2kHz range. A small peak is usually not very detrimental to the sound at all. Flat — When the frequency response does not deviate in the audible range something is considered flat. Strangely enough not everyone that describes a sound as flat it actually is flat. The finer details are rendered a bit coarse.

Often this is caused by lots of sharp peaks and deep dips in the treble area above 6kHz. H arsh — This describes a sound similar as grainy but more concentrated in the midrange from 1kHz to 5kHz rather than in the treble range. Highs — Also called treble, these are the upper frequencies above 5kHz.

This requires a flat frequency response that is also matched between the two drivers, and detailed recordings. Laid back — describes a relaxed sound signature and is caused by an audible and rather wide dip around kHz. It is the opposite of forward and dynamic. Upper mids and lower treble is under-emphasized and is found to be pleasant for longer listening sessions when the dip is just slight between 5 and 10dB.

Lush — is similar to Laid back. It describes a rich, warm-pillowy sound usually with slightly elevated lower frequencies and rather wide dip around kHz with a good treble quality that is a bit higher in level than when said to be laid back. Microphonics — sensitivity to touch.

When one touches the ear cups of a headphone one can hear this quite clearly. Depending on how a cable is coupled to the cup touching the cable does a similar thing but attenuated compared to touching the cups directly. Cloth covered, thick and rigid cables usually are worse in this aspect then softer and thinner smooth surface cables. The mids Hz — Hz and upper mids 1. Muffled — sound is when it would appear as though the sound is coming from a speaker with a wool blanket draped over it.

Lacking in clarity and treble. Frequencies above 2kHz are subdued and or rolled-off. Natural — When a headphone sounds natural all instruments and voices are reproduced in a realistic manner without coloration, a correct stereo-image and with a dynamic sound. N eutral — and neutral are closely the same but neutral is more about the reproduction of sound not being colored. All frequencies are reproduced at the proper level.

There can be consensus about how a headphone should measure to be considered neutral. However, there are many people stating a headphone or speaker sounds neutral to them but in reality is quite colored. The term neutral used in subjective reviews thus can be considered a meaningless term unless comparisons are made to known neutral headphones. Openness — Has little to do with a headphone being open or closed. It usually refers to a detailed and neutral sounding headphone where instruments have a clear separation.

Punch — powerful bass and drum hits. Rolled-off — Sound can be rolled-off in the lows and in the treble or both. Rolled-off bass is lacking in lower bass and can have slightly subdued bass as well. When the treble is rolled off frequencies above 10kHz usually are low in amplitude. When this happens usually the sound is not considered airy and lacks sparkle.

Shrill — An exaggerated form of sharpness usually with an emphasis between 4kHz and 10kHz and is unpleasant, shrieky. In the long run also fatiguing. Signature — the overall tonal balance of a headphone. One could describe a signature in many ways as found in this article. For the latter it can describe the amplitude opposite the bass and mids or define treble quality.

Soundstage — Describes in 3d terms height, width and depth where one perceives recorded instruments. In the vast majority of cases sounds are between left and right ear only. For headphones instead of soundstage the word headstage is used. Sparkle — Usually caused by a slight emphasis in the upper treble and describes vibrant treble.

Spatial — describes how sounds can be heard all around you. Requires digital trickery to pull this of with headphones. Usually to get spatial sound multiple speakers are required placed around the listening position. Timbre — The tone of a note from an instrument. Timbre is determined by the ratio between the fundamental tone and its harmonics. When the tonal balance is not flat timbre can be affected and changed.

This can sometime be for the better or worse and depends on the recording. Do note that in studios timbre of each individual instrument is often adjusted to fit in the recording. When a headphone is described as tonally balanced no specific frequency bands are popping out or are subdued.

The real snag here is that some owners may feel a headphone is tonally balanced but in reality it may be bassy, bass-shy, warm, cold, midrangy or bright for instance. Objectively tonal balance is difficult to prove headphone measurements can differ substantially between test-rigs. Transparent — Similar to clarity it is a clean clear open and detailed quality.

The opposite is cold. Most headphones, however, are specified at dB and those that do not specify these cut-off points usually quote their numbers at dB, or dB to create more impressive numbers. No headphone is perfectly flat from 20Hz to 20kHz. This is the main reason why all headphones sound so different from each other, because of these relatively large differences in frequency response.

It is also why the frequency plot reveals the most when it comes to the sonic character. Deep male voices sound that way. When voices sound neutral that specific part of the frequency range is horizontal flat. NOTE : the tilted lines are shown exaggerated and less steep sloping plots less dB difference will also show this effect. The plot above merely shows the general idea and in reality the slope may differ or look quite different.

It is the general idea of a sloping curve in that specific area that counts. The DT below is a nice example. Bass is slightly but not terribly elevated as well as the treble. Relatively the mids between Hz and 3kHz are lower in amplitude. An example below.. The majority of them is even FAR from flat. All headphones even the most expensive ones thus have a kind of curved more or less wobbly frequency response with peaks and dips that may be present at certain point s in the frequency range.

Sharp peaks AND dips are usually the result of a resonance.

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What Is Headphone Frequency Response - Frequency Response Explained 2021 investing op amp frequency response in headphones

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