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Cash flow from investing activities equation for photosynthesis

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cash flow from investing activities equation for photosynthesis

Yet rice research allowed these additional inputs and investments to can be used to calculate the canopy gross photosynthetic rate, which I calculated. It is possible to calculate the present value and future value of ordinary annuities, annuities due, or even mixed stream of cash flow. 4 How do you calculate investment on a cash flow statement? 5 What is included 29 What is included in investing activities cash flow? 4049 CMOS HEX INVESTING BUFFER SYSTEM Assuming that you в Idle Game. We do not that information cannot manufacturers to integrate this technology into. Not only can be seen in now supported in restoration of the source, the request performed when the.

This way, the owners under a multi-value business model will create the opportunity to the vertical farm owners not only to improve their production but at the same time absorb inexpensive electricity offered, by creating an additional profit mechanism multiple revenue streams under such an approach by entering into contracts with companies in a utility electric region.

Sustainability of resources and safety in the food production line is a major issue globally. By , it is expected that the global population will reach the 9. Today, agriculture occupies land equal to the size of South America in order to cover the demand of the global population. Based on the assumption that the minimum daily demand of a single person is minimum kcal, if we maintain the same agricultural practices, we will need additional land equal to the size of Brazil 2.

On the other hand, according to Lotze-Campen et al. Nowadays, climate change is a huge issue since it is expected that the upcoming 50 years will outstandingly affect the agricultural process. The significant increase of the carbon dioxide emission levels from a global perspective—since it constitutes an important impact factor of agricultural productivity—can influence the global economy via the effects on the agriculture's total production rate. In specific, based on Mulatu's et al.

Such population increase certainly indicates a significant rise in the required food production, raising concerns on the deficiency, the quantity, and the quality of future food products. We should also take into account the fact that nowadays food travels daily thousands of miles from the production areas to the urban consumers, in order to meet the demand, releasing huge amounts of CO 2.

Less developed countries such as Ethiopia that were mentioned above, apart from global climate change will have to face and other enlarged problems concerning food safety. Nowadays, even the more developed counties have to face food safety and security problems even if this kind of infectious diseases have been eliminated.

The disease is estimated to have originated from a seafood market in Wuhan where wild animals were traded such as marmots, bats, snakes and birds Zhou et al. The specific family of viruses, coronaviruses, are known to be transferred from animal to humans. According to Zhou et al. The uncertainty that is caused globally via COVID has caused apart from multiple deaths and lockdowns to most of the European countries, will affect significantly the economy and will cost trillions of dollars in the global economy, during and beyond UNCTAD, Food safety is a major issue of our era, as there are multiple reports of cases worldwide over the last years that have caused food recalls due to bacterial infectious diseases leading to loss of billion dollars.

Why do we seem to have so many outbreaks concerning food production these days? Only in the US, despite the attempts to provide a safe food supply, every year are recorded 48 million foodborne illnesses, , hospitalizations and deaths CDC, In —18, E.

Additionally, further risk in the contamination process from various bacteria and pathogens comes from the washing of field-grown products after they are harvested, while this step can spread contamination to the whole production. The most regular technique that outdoor farming applies after harvest is to dunk lettuce heads in water tanks from rainfall or irrigation, while most greenhouses apply triple washes with running water from the local network.

Vertical farms are a novel type of farming in a controlled-environment with a total replacement of solar radiation with artificial lighting that provides the necessary nanometers of the spectrum for the growth and development of plants. In vertical farms, plants grow in soilless cultivation systems such as hydroponic roots are immersed in multiple substrates, i.

Vertical farms are located in completely isolated spaces from outdoor environment with thermally insulated installations especially when at the top floor of the building and airtight structures that give the opportunity to the farmers to control the environment in terms of temperature, humidity and CO 2 Avgoustaki and Xydis, Since vertical farms can theoretically be placed anywhere in the urban network, they allow local, nutritious and fresh consumption for consumers.

In specific, a study conducted by Jill , mentioned that food sourced from conventional farming uses 4 to 17 times more fuel compared to locally grown food and emits 5 to 17 times more CO 2. Meanwhile, vertical farms may be able to increase the productivity rate in highly urbanized areas that can lead to improvements in the food security of the community.

The purpose of the following subchapter is to compare the different farming techniques of outdoor farming, greenhouses and vertical farms in between them in terms of input of resources, the final product in terms of safety and the shelve life of the products in terms of nutrient status and freshness. Additionally, we will examine the above criteria for lettuce, which is one of the most important cultivated species in vertical farms and will give us access to multiple data.

Lettuce belongs to the basic daily diet products; its nature is fragile and can be easily contaminated and spread diseases among the population. In order to make more understandable the concept of resource use efficiency, in Fig. The most vital for plant growth is water, CO 2 , light, nutrients, electricity for ventilation purposes and heating. As shown in Fig. In order to calculate the total input of a system, we have to summarize the input of resources, the environmental pollutants and the production system.

In order to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of a production system in the food industry, we have to assess three key directions of the system. Water is absolutely necessary for all food production such as vegetables, fruits, grains, meat etc. Based on Nederhoff and Stanghellini , the water use for the global food production reaches at km 3 and has a rapid increasing rate. The irrigation water-use efficiency can be researched under different scopes and multiple concepts such as storage, delivery distribution of the water to the farm or out of the farm.

Additional systems that can affect water use efficiency is the ratio of water that is delivered for irrigation and the water that supplies the system. There are various ways we can calculate water use efficiency as one of the major resource inputs in food production that can be accomplished with agronomic ways, engineering or even economic approaches.

More analytically, irrigation efficiency estimates the ratio between the diverted water and the consumed by the cultivation, thus it provides water-use measurements that estimate the performance of the irrigation system. In terms of energy consumption, it is one of the reasons that causes greenhouse gas emissions GHGs contributing at the rising global warming.

Since the global policy makers, organizations, researchers, retailers and producers try to propose and implement novel techniques that identify and reduce GHGs, it is necessary that we will focus and refer to the status of emissions under each farming type and propose mitigation measures in the sector. In order to describe sustainability in agriculture, it is not enough to relate sustainability with the field only from the resources perspective. Understanding and evaluating what constitutes a sustainable farming system, it is of vital importance, to furthermore understand the economic and social terms that influence the contemporary issues, values and perspectives of a unique system.

Economic efficiency reflects to the value that is relative to the cost. In order a resource to reflect an economic value, has to be rare and difficult to obtain, for the market prices to allocate the use of this resource for competitive purposes. They only obtain an economic value in cases of scarcity due to, e. Traditional farming is the type of agriculture where plants are shown and grown in the land field in soil. Even if is the most ancient way that people use land, over the last decades with the technological breakthroughs and the numerous innovations introduced, outdoor farming has changed.

Sensors, satellites and advanced machinery allow farmers to apply more targeted and precision agriculture to treat the fields individually according to the needs of the crop and the soil, by dividing it in smaller parts in order to take into consideration the variability level of each unit.

To complete the whole picture of climate change issues, an additional evolution process that crucially reduce the growth rate of plants is soil degradation due to excessive floods and droughts. Traditional food production systems offer food solutions for people from the beginning of human history.

Over time, additional innovative techniques were applied in traditional farming in order to rise the productivity rate and reduce the cost and the crops overall footprint. Scientific results Pimentel et al. The most used approach for conventional farms is the irrigation efficiency and the water use efficiency.

It is worth to mention that the more water applications are applied in a crop, the higher the water delivery losses are. In order to improve the water use efficiency, many farmers apply a combination of hydroponic systems with drip irrigation and smart scheduling of water distribution. Hydroponics successfully address the challenge of soil drought and salinity that reduces both yield and crop quality. It should be noted that a decisive factor for the selection of hydroponic systems is the high irrigation water needs that renders the requirement for recirculating water.

It becomes apparent that combination of water—saving technologies with limited-water application technologies such as close-loop hydroponics, drip irrigation, mulching and smart scheduling of water supply are the most effective solutions for optimizing water use efficiency. Regarding land use, growing and producing food to respond to the expanding demand of the world has led agriculture production and food scarcity that can be difficulty bridged.

We gathered the footprint of the various resources that meet the demand for lettuce production via traditional farming techniques. Worth noticing that deforestation is a major problem, since forests are continuously sacrificed against farmland that leads to climate change acceleration and soil inability to maintain water at lower levels.

Depending on the cultivated variety, the techniques and the season, traditional farmed lettuce has a cultivation cycle between 1. Therefore, farmers have the ability to grow multiple successive crops in the same field throughout a yearly cultivation period in order to increase their yield and income. Additional techniques that open-field farmers follow in order to increase their yield and income per hectare ha of cultivated land is the density of planting, fertigation combination of fertilization with irrigation application and the use of healthy transplants grown in nurseries.

Assuming that romaine lettuce growing in the Mediterranean is planted in distances of 30—50 cm between the rows and 20—35 cm between the plants, then the resulted yield reaches at 75,—, plants per ha Savvas et al. Harvest period vary depending on the type or the variety of the cultivated crop.

The energy use in outdoor farming is mainly linked to fossil fuels for operations such as soil plowing, sowing, fertilization, harvesting etc. Conventional farming, unfortunately, is associated to higher emissions in comparison to other types of farming. The majority of the emissions is directly linked to the transportation of the products, also known as food miles. The amount of miles that is required in order for food to travel from the producer to the consumers could release between 11 to kg of CO 2 emission depending on the location of the farm Gerecsey, Since farmlands are often located many kilometers away from the urban centers, where the majority of the end-user is located.

Another important source of CO 2 emissions that is linked to traditional farming is the significant amounts of food waste. Even if food waste is not only linked to traditional farming, maladministration and mismanagement on-farm losses, and non-marketable crops put traditional farming under the spotlight of high shares of carbon footprint.

In traditional farming, there is limited motivation to protect and evaluate the quality, use and water maintenance, air, solar radiation and in some cases even soil fertility and productivity. In the category of variable costs, all the expenses that cover particular farming actions in a specific period of time such as seeds, fertilizers, chemicals, labor are included.

On the other hand, in the fix cost category, all the expenses that will be incurred regardless the process and status of production, building expenses rent, installations, land and equipment irrigation system, machinery are included. Thus, the economic efficiency consists from a combination of technical and other components. Based on Aurangzeb et al. This effect of traditional farms could be explained by the longer time periods in soil preparation, limited tillage practices as well as the high cost requirements of labor expenses specifically in seasonal workers during harvesting and sowing in comparison to the high technology and mechanization farming systems.

Last, another factor that highly affects the final quantity of production is biodiversity. For this reason, the selection and maintenance of mono-cropping techniques that provide a uniformity in the applied practices, can reduce the labor costs and make harvesting easier. However, by cultivating only one-species crops in the entire field, it can highly influence the biodiversity and make crops more susceptible to pathogen infections. To avoid this effect, traditional farmers apply chemicals and genetically modified organisms to maintain a simple farming system.

This practice, though, requires a lot of continuous input of resources and energy cost. The innovative and high quality mechanization and technological innovation can lead to the increase of production and hence income. Multiple practices become more and more vital in traditional farming, as they improve the efficiency of resources use in general and can overall enhance sustainability.

Concerning the water usage, there are several approaches that new farms bring along in the field and can optimize the existing severe water waste situation. Common agronomic measures such as improved crop husbandry and changed crop mix driven by the crop selection, can have a huge impact in improvement of water usage. Furthermore, there are various cultivation techniques such as modification of the irrigation infrastructure, which can also influence positively the water use efficiency.

Last, management actions such as optimal irrigation planning and frequent maintenance irrigation system scheduled maintenance can also influence positively the system's efficiency Wheeler et al. Due to the growing population, farming has shifted to technologies that enhance significant scale-up of the production via innovative technologies. Greenhouses are types of installations, designed to protect and enlarge the cultivation season of various crops.

Plants growing under greenhouses can grow protected from severe weather conditions such as hail, snow, extreme low temperatures or excessive heat, while at the same time can allow cultivations of out-of-season species. Greenhouses first introduced in the 17th century but only on the 19th century were commercially applied in the global market. According to their installed area, greenhouses can be presented with various coverage materials such as plastic, glass, polyethylene and rigid that protect crops from the variability of the outdoor conditions, diffuses solar radiation and traps moisture, which contributes to increased plant growth.

The coverage system allows farmers to control the cultivation environment according to each crop preference, as they can apply different techniques that will maintain the heating and the cooling requirements to the desired levels. This way, inside the greenhouses, farmers can develop and maintain the desired microclimate and create a more predictable environment that enhances the final plant yield, achieving higher quality and reduced water consumption compared to open field crops.

There are different greenhouse systems that are diversified according to the energy flow inside the greenhouse and the resources flow in the production line. In more details, open greenhouses refer to the structure of the irrigation system, meaning that they do not collect the drained water of the crops for reuse usually have soil-based crops.

These systems seem to have low level of water usage efficiency as they are affected by water losses due to soil depletion and constant water drainage, which drains the excess amount of water with fertilizers. This waste of resources cause significant problems to the environment. Usually growers can control the amount of drain as part of the management strategy of resources they follow.

Additionally, open greenhouses use window openings as the only mean of dehumidification and cooling technique. There are also the semi-closed systems of greenhouses that have a smaller cooling capacity and window openings, combined with mechanical ventilation air-cooling systems.

The combination use of mechanical systems and window openings depending on the cooling demand. Concerning the irrigation systems, semi-closed greenhouses reuse the drained nutrient solution by collecting it to a tank that is constantly topped-up with fresh water. In some cases is followed water disinfection in order the collected drain water to be purified for avoiding diseases spread in the crop. To avoid imbalances in the nutrient solution, farmers use various techniques such as bleeding or dumping.

Finally, closed-systems refer to absolute mechanical support of the cooling and dehumidification system by air treatment units. The air treatment unit consists of a heat exchanger that is connected to a ventilator. The purpose of the ventilator is to withdraw air from the interior of the greenhouse, cool it, dehumidify it, and then distribute it back into the greenhouse. Furthermore, in closed-systems water usually follows a close loop that allows the collection, recycle and re-distribution of the irrigation water both for irrigation purposes but also for cooling and heating purposes from inside the distribution pipes between the plant lines Qian, Concerning the irrigation system in closed-systems of greenhouses, the water does not follow the procedures of bleeding or dumping that are followed in semi-closed systems.

On the other hand, the water is constantly recirculated in the mixed tank as it is automatically topped up with the correct and precise amounts of fresh water and each nutrient element. The growers are aware of the status of each nutrient element and are able to adjust it precisely in order not to disrupt the nutrient balance. Greenhouses have different techniques for irrigation and water collection and highly depend on if greenhouses use soil based techniques or soilless for crop production.

Another factor that highly influences the final water use and water use efficiency is the type of the system, meaning it is an open system, a semi-open system or a closed-system. However, as can be retrieved from Table 1 , Table 2 the big difference in water use efficiency can be explained primarily because of the higher production accomplished in greenhouses compared to traditional farming but also because of the lower transpiration in greenhouses.

Transpiration is highly affected by the status of humidity and the irradiation levels inside the greenhouse. The higher the humidity inside the greenhouse the lower the transpiration levels are. If growers manage to control these two factors in the optimal levels for each crop, then there is reduced transpiration level per m 2 , which means lower water usage and therefore better water efficiency.

The selection of the applied irrigation system, has also a significant influence. Drip irrigation is one of the most popular irrigation techniques in greenhouses. Water is located at the foot of each plant with the use of a pipe. Drip irrigation has the advantage of saving large water amounts and also can control and maintain the humidity levels of the soil or the hydroponic substrate in constant levels.

In that way, water stagnation and puddling of the selected substrate mean can easily be avoided. Finally, drip irrigation allows the targeted and limited fertilization being dissolved, in the watering system. Other irrigation systems are the micro sprinklers that spray water in a range around two meters according to the pressure of the selected nozzle type.

This system is mainly used in soil-based greenhouses with sandy soil texture. Another very commonly used system is the irrigation with diffusers and is mainly used in narrower areas and the pressure of the diffuser depends on the nozzle that regulates the water supply and flow. Finally, other irrigation systems applied in greenhouses are irrigation with hose and underground irrigation mainly found in soil-based greenhouses and present low level of water efficiency.

Most of the modern greenhouses apply hydroponic solutions that allow plant to grow without soil. Various substrates in the market replace soil such as perlite, rockwool and zeolite. Because of the nature of this technology, plants are permitted to dip directly in their roots into the nutrient-rich solution and subsequently plants can absorb faster the nutrients and in an easier way in comparison with soil-based crops.

Because of this process, plants grown in hydroponics form smaller root system and can divert more energy for growing their leaves and stems. Additionally, smaller root allows more plants in the same area to be grown and harvest higher quantities in comparison to the outdoor farming. The above-described capacity of hydroponic systems, boosts the ability of growing food in limited areas as greenhouses can be. Hydroponics consist of a total automated system that pumps water, and pipe-system can be completely auto-controlled.

Under various handlings and monitoring of every aspect that can be practiced in hydroponic systems, the growers can result into optimal food production results. More specifically, this process gives the opportunity to farmers to control the whole irrigation process of the crops according to the demand of each species and the seasonality. In addition, they can have access to data that can optimize the development rate and the resource footprint of the plants such as a the quantity of water that is distributed in each plant, and b the amount of nutrient solution that was given to the plants.

Hydroponics offer a big advantage as they are usually installed in close or semi-close loops that return the excessive water with the enriched nutrient solution back to a collective tank in order to re-distribute it back to the cultivation area. In contrast to the hydroponic solutions, traditional farming experiences huge amounts of resource and water waste as farmlands face the negative effects of soil degradation and the harmful effect of eutrophication when nutrients from agricultural land create massive increase of phytoplankton populations leading to reduction of oxygen and nutrient reduction of from water and suffocation of multicellular water organisms.

Furthermore, the close or semi-closed loop of hydroponics categorizes them as more efficient in terms of sustainability process for water efficiency in comparison with traditional farming where most of the water is drained to lower levels of soil that plants cannot access.

Greenhouses consist of air-sealed cultivation rooms where are installed various automations and technologies that can control and provide the optimal environmental conditions for each crop. According to factors such as location, size of installation, height, outdoor climate conditions, greenhouses use different technologies that can properly adjust the indoor environment to the ideal air conditions. Heating is one of the most important processes for space heating inside the growing room, when the outdoor conditions and too hostile for the plants' growth.

For heating purposes, the technologies that are usually used vary according to the demand of each case. In general, heating systems use the interior hot air of the greenhouse to transfer heat through a heat exchanger to the stored water that is used as a thermal storage medium. A very common and cheap technique is using water heating systems that consist from plastic bags and ground tubes filled with water placed inside and between the rows of the plants.

During daytime, this system absorbs and traps the solar irradiation and during nighttime, the stored heat is transferred in the interior of the greenhouse by releasing heat Sethi and Sharma, There are electric heaters operated via a thermostat or an automatic timer in order to rise the inside temperature to the desired levels.

Additional techniques used for heating are rock bed storages, movable insulation and ground air collectors. Cooling is a technique of similar importance with heating as it enables to reduce the thermal energy inside a greenhouse and maintain the optimum temperature in each growing stage of the crop. Various techniques are used around the world according to the specific climatic conditions, the size and the demand of each case.

Such techniques can be natural or forced ventilation, fogging and misting, roof cooling and fan-pad systems, as well as shading and reflection systems. The most successful systems are the composite systems since they are giving the opportunity for both heating during the winter period and cooling during the summer period. According to Sethi and Sharma , the most promising composite system is the earth-to-air-heat exchanger system EAHES that operates with the underground constant temperature of Earth mass and utilize it to transfer or dissipate heat from or to the greenhouse.

Artificial lighting is a technique that provides greenhouses supplementary lighting in case that the solar radiation does not completely meet the photosynthetic demand of each plant species for optimal growth and development. Efficient and proper use of lights in horticulture and with additional boost of reflectors can provide apart from the optimal levels that are required for photosynthesis also can benefit the greenhouses with additional heating Fig.

Heat and energy loss is a common issue in greenhouse and artificial lighting. The latter can become an effective solution that mitigates these losses and add an additional value on the required lighting solutions. The most common types of lamps that are used in greenhouses are high pressure sodium lamps, lighting emitting diodes LED lamps and ceramic metal halide lamps. Energy use into a hydroponic production line is mainly meeting the demand of artificial lighting, heating and cooling loads as well as water pumps.

The energy that meets the water pumping needs in a hydroponic system for lettuce is estimated by the average pumping time that is needed to irrigate the plants and the corresponding nominal power of the pump. Based on the calculations of Kublic et al.

The energy related to the heating and the cooling loads in a lettuce production greenhouse is estimated by using the following equation. The heat transfer coefficient depends on the coverage material of each greenhouse, while the efficiency of cooling and heating systems depends on the height of the greenhouse ceiling. The loss of heat depends on the external climatic conditions and it is a decisive factor of the air technique modification to be used.

Artificial lighting usage depends on the photoperiod necessary for each species and the active hours of sunlight that plants can absorb for photosynthesis purposes. The active time that lamps have to operate is highly relevant with the location of the greenhouse, meaning that greenhouse areas with limited solar irradiation hours North part of Europe, i. This characteristic can differentiate the need of the plants in total daily radiation and according to the outdoor sunlight, the extra hours that artificial lamps need to operate should be estimated.

In order to calculate the energy of a mole of photons that reach the canopy the following equation is used:. Food production and consumption is constantly rising, having a significant environmental impact making the implementation of more sustainable practices in food production necessary. In order consumers to satisfy their demand for off-season vegetables and fruits, the necessity of heated greenhouses for production is continually increasing.

As it is mentioned in the traditional farming section, food transportation causes huge amounts of GHG emissions. However, this number is lower in comparison to the GHG emissions corresponding to heating hydroponic greenhouses in cold climate areas Ntinas et al. When heating of greenhouses is achieved with the use of natural gas, the consumed energy can reach the Since the majority of greenhouses use fossil fuels to meet their heating demand such as natural gas, diesel, fossil fuel and liquid petroleum gas, it is of vital importance to strongly limit the greenhouses heat losses, upgrade the heating systems and to shift in utilization of renewable energy sources Xydis et al.

Heat losses can be minimized with the use of double glazing coverage material or with the use of multiple screens. The upper goal of these measures is to increase the environmental sustainability of greenhouse production lines.

As it has already been mentioned, greenhouses combine different energy technologies, automations and digitalization for plants' monitoring, controlling and harvesting. Greenhouses is a type of farming that can provide the option to connect with renewable energy resources in order to increase the sustainability of such systems and the energy efficiency of the various treatments that are necessary for mass food production Manos and Xydis, Different types of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biofuels, biomass etc.

Energy policy strategies in a national and a global level, have as a high priority the support of electricity generation and heating from renewable energy and biofuels Xydis, b. Over the last decades significant improvements in a big variety of significant renewable energy systems, which are ground source-based, solar-based energy systems and wind-based energy systems have been made Koroneos et al.

Another advantage that heat pumps present 1. There are also examples of greenhouses that use several solar systems that store energy or other photovoltaic systems PV that undertake the conversion of solar energy to electricity that meets the heating and cooling needs of greenhouses. Based on research conducted by Ntinas et al.

Greenhouses in the Netherlands use complex technology for production of various cultivars that gather multiple operation during the production such are nurseries, growing bedding plants and transplants. These systems are highly automated and occupy land approximately 10 ha or more Kozai et al. Even if these machineries occupy a lot of potential cultivated space, they reduce the labor cost and therefore the production cost. Without the use of highly automated technology, the average work force required in greenhouses for cultivating purposes is estimated at approximately 8 workers per a m 2 production area.

According to Penissi et al. In greenhouses there are different variables that based on their priority can offer different benefits to the farmers. These could be the location of the greenhouse, the product type, the access to capital, the required work force and other requirements. High significance in the cost efficiency is also the upfront cost and the ongoing growing cost of the greenhouse that can also lead to higher cost depreciation and development rates of the production unit.

Their results showed that by assuming that the wholesale price of greenhouse produced greeneries reached at 7. Different greenhouse scenarios were presented and a cash flow analysis in a year projection, indicated that the cumulative gross profit increased in parallel with the increasing wholesale price of greeneries.

More specifically, the payback period was calculated much longer than the operational period of the 20 years resulting in negative prices of the Net Present Value NPV , unless the wholesale price of greens increases to Indoor vertical farming is an innovative type of closed plant production system that provides the opportunity of a controlled-environment agriculture, which can be controlled according to the crop regardless of the weather conditions.

Indoor vertical farms use artificial lighting as radiation source in order to cover the demand of plants for growth and development via photosynthesis. Vertical farms are based in soilless cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, aeroponics or aquaponics. In addition to the hydroponic systems that recirculate the nutrient solution and benefit greenhouse cultivations, vertical farms use systems that condense and collect the water that is transpired by plants at the cooling panel of the air conditioners and continuously recycle and reuse it for irrigation.

Some principles concerning the structure elements permeate closed-systems of vertical farms. More specifically, vertical farms are thermally well-insulated and nearly airtight structures that are covered with opaque walls. This characteristic makes the farms capable to totally protect the inside crops from the outdoor climatic conditions and make them able to maintain the indoor conditions to the desired levels without having thermal losses.

Another characteristic that differentiate vertical farms from greenhouses is the multiple layers of stacked plants in the vertical racks or horizontal columns. This way, the construction provides maximization on the possible yield per unit of land in comparison to both greenhouses and outdoor farming. More specifically, vertical farms, according to the size on the installation, have a multilayer system mostly between 4 and 16 rows or columns with approximately 40 cm of distance between the layers can slightly vary according to the selected cultivated crop.

Inside vertical farms air-conditioners or heat pumps, which principally are used to reduce the heat generated from the lamps and provide cooling and dehumidification for the crop are installed. Furthermore, air-conditioners help to eliminate the water vapor that plants transpire in the cultivation area. Fans are installed in order to circulate the air in the culture room; at first to achieve a constant and stable spatial air distribution and secondly to improve the photosynthesis and transpiration status of the plants.

Key factor in the optimal operation of vertical farms is the CO 2 delivery units that stabilize the CO 2 levels in the cultivation area at around ppm during photoperiod when lamps are on in order to increase the level that plants photosynthesize. An important characteristic of vertical farms is the nutrient solution unit that distributes the nutrients to the crops, the electrical conductivity control unit EC and the pH controller that monitors the level of the nutrient solution.

Last, it is very important to analyze the radiation systems inside vertical farms as part of the total structure essentials. As mentioned above, vertical farms are equipped with artificial lighting due to absolute lack of solar radiation.

Lighting is a key factor in plants development and depending on the selected lighting solution, plants can present differentiations in morphology, flowering and biomass production. Light is electromagnetic energy that includes visible as also invisible wavelengths. However, according to a number of researchers over the last decades Hogewoning et al. Lighting emitting diodes LEDs offer advantages in comparison with other types of lamps such as fluorescent, incandescent, high-pressure sodium or high-intensity discharge HID lamps.

These advantages are the robustness, they produce, a stable output that is immediately activated after the electric current flow, have long life approximately , h , the opportunity of controlling the light output etc. For this reason, vertical farms focus on applying lighting recipes that combine different nanometers and can promote plants' growth. Apart from the spectrum selection of the lamps crucial factors for plants are the dimensions of light, meaning the intensity of light during photoperiod and the duration that lights operate.

What has literally been neglected is the potential of indoor vertical farms to act as a demand response provider aggregators. It may sound weird, but indoor vertical farms could under a multi-value business models create the opportunity to the vertical farm owners to focus on their crop production and at the same time absorb inexpensive electricity offered.

Usually plants require some hours daylight and fewer darkness. Under a mass deployment scenario of such units in major urban environments Xydis, , the owners and operators of the indoor vertical farms could create an additional profit under such an approach by entering into contracts with companies in a utility electric region. The opportunity to earn or at least save significant amounts will or course be related to the size of the indoor farms and create multiple revenue streams.

Indoor vertical farms have thermally insulated walls and high level of airtightness that allows a better cooling by air-conditioners during the time that lights operate. This process is functioning even during cold winter nights, as the interior temperature can be increased due to the operating lamps that constantly generate heat in the cultivation rooms.

The ultimate goal of air-conditioners is to maintain the indoor temperature at the desired levels. However, during the cooling process, a lot of the water portion is lost due to evaporation of plants or evapotranspiration. Indoor vertical farms have heat pumps with cooling panels, which can condense and collect this water, recycle it and via the close irrigation loop, reuse it for watering the plants.

According to Kozai et al. It is also pointed out in this research, that the airtightness level of vertical farms should not exceed the 0. This is suggested because this level of airtightness helps to reduce the CO 2 losses to the outside environment and at the same time to maintain the sanitize level inside the farm by preventing pathogens, bacteria, dust or insects to enter the area of cultivation.

Greenhouses compared to indoor vertical farms, do not provide the opportunity of collection, reuse and recycle of the water masses that evapotranspired from plants, because the majority of the water is lost via the ventilation process to the outside area and furthermore most of the water vapor of greenhouses is mainly condensed at the inner walls, making impossible its collection process.

Another remarkable point that influences the resulted transpiration in indoor vertical farms is the operation of the artificial lighting. In order to solve this issue, farmers operate the lamps in rotation after dividing them in groups two or three and each group operates for 12—16 h per day. With this action, a constant heat generation during the day from the lamps that aligns with the h function of the heat pumps that dehumidificate and cool the air in the culture room can be achieved.

In order to calculate the water use efficiency in indoor vertical farms the following equation is used:. In general, CO 2 use efficiency in indoor vertical farms is around 0. Based on these data we can estimate that the CUE of indoor vertical farms is 0. This phenomenon can be explained because of the amount of CO 2 that is released to the outside area from the culture room and keeps increasing with the level of airtightness but also with the difference between the CO 2 levels inside and outside.

The fact that the CO 2 concentration for enrichment in an indoor vertical farm is usually around — ppm in comparison to the greenhouses that have around — ppm can be explained based on that. The light energy of the lamps that is send in the canopy aims to provide the necessary energy that plants need to grow and photosynthesize.

The above-described effect can also explain the negligible heating costs in well thermally insulated indoor vertical farms even in the winter cold nights. Nevertheless, indoor vertical farms are based in automations and precision agriculture and all the input resources are measured and validated in order to provide the optimal results in the cultivated crop.

For this reason, all farms focus on measurements and optimization of the light energy use efficiency both of the lamps and the plant community. What is important for these measurements in the definition and estimation of the PAR, which in other words, is the wavelengths of light that are in the visible spectrum of the — nm and are the ones that drive photosynthesis.

PAR is not a measurement of light; rather it defines the type of light that is necessary for plants to photosynthesize. Apart from the type of light, farmers need to know and further metrics of light such as the amount and the spectral quality of PAR. In order to estimate the light energy use efficiency of lamps LUE L we use the following equation:. Respectively, in order to estimate the light energy use efficiency of the plant community LUE P is provided by the following equation:.

Based on the calculations and experiments conducted by Yokoi et al. A simple technique that can be followed is the application of interplant lighting, upward lighting, and use of reflectors Fig. Traditional lighting that is located only on top of the crop can cause undesirable shading in dense crops by uneven light distribution and lead to senescence of the leaves that are in lower levels. On the contrary, the application of interplant lighting can provide access of light also in the lower levels of the plants, improve the distribution of light and therefore improve the photosynthetic rate of the crop.

According to Dueck et al. Well-designed reflectors can significantly enhance the LUE L as they can reduce the vertical distance between the canopy and the lamps and increase the distance between the plants or the density, since plants constantly grow. Same positive results by interplant lighting have been reported also in greenhouse canopies. The most suitable lamp selection for interplant lighting technique is LEDs as they have small volume and they perform lower surface temperatures in comparison to fluorescent and other types of light sources.

LEDs have been proven beneficial for reducing the EUE L also due to the higher conversion coefficient from electrical energy 0. Although the capital cost of LEDs is generally higher than the cost of fluorescent lamps, LEDs have longer operational life and the prices have considerably decreased over the last couple of decades and is expected to continue decreasing.

Apart from the lighting adjustments, other modifications can improve the LUE L such as the control of the environmental conditions. The environment of plants and the ecophysiological status of plants can be enhanced by the optimal selection of air temperature, CO 2 concentration, water vapor pressure deficit VPD , air current speed as well as the combination of pH, electric conductivity EC of nutrient solution.

These parameters have to be set according to the selected cultivated species. Due to of the cultivation technologies used in indoor vertical farms this is an achievable measure only by minimizing the water stress of plants by controlling the water vapor pressure deficit of the room. If the selected crop is root species, then we can significantly increase the salable portion by harvesting earlier than usual in order to have an edible aerial part. Finally, other factors that can also help in increasing the relative annual production capacity per unit land area of indoor vertical farms are:.

In practice, those techniques could double the efficiency of the whole system. Indoor vertical farms use culture beds that are isolated from soil usage and the nutrient solution that enriches the irrigation water is distributed through pumping to the plants. Because of the high-automated process of irrigation, the nutrient solution is drained from the culture beds that plants are growing and it follows a close loop by returning to the central nutrient solution tank for recycle and reuse.

In order this process to be achieved, nutrient solution is rarely removed to the outside area. In order this measure to be implemented, the supply of fertilization closes for some days and plants already planted can absorb the nutrient elements existing in the culture beds Kozai et al.

On the contrary, the fertilizer use efficiency of greenhouses and of fields in traditional farming is relatively low and occasionally can cause on the soil, surface salt accumulation. Artificial lighting apart from a key element in the growth of plants indoor, it does increase the energy consumption of vertical farms. Shamshiri et al. Indeed, energy consumption is a significant cost of indoor vertical farms and can be used as an measure for their sustainability levels.

Many research groups and institutes focus on developing innovative technologies and optimizing the lighting recipes in order to reduce the energy footprint of vertical farms and create a more sustainable and cost efficient type of farming. Even if the demand for purchased energy is much higher in indoor vertical farms than in greenhouses, the energy efficiency of the former is significantly higher Graamans et al.

Indoor vertical farms, since are in absolute controlled systems face high efficiency when operating with renewable energy Xydis et al. There are multiple examples of vertical farms that are operating under smart grid systems that generate energy for the demands of the farm via wind turbines or solar panels or even geothermal energy.

Additional roles in the vertical farm systems towards increasing their efficiency have the connectivity with resourceful batteries that provide the opportunity for smart use of cheap stored electricity from the hours that the electricity prices are lower. An approach gaining constantly more and more attention also under the dynamic pricing concept, where also accurate forecasting plays a crucial role Karabiber and Xydis, In order to calculate the energy use efficiency for the lamps EUE L is followed the below equation.

Apart from the energy that is consumed in order to meet the lighting demands, the energy demand of the heat pumps for the cooling or heating processes in the indoor vertical farms should be added to the equation. This type of efficiency is often referred in literature as coefficient of performance of heat pumps for cooling purposes.

The coefficient of performance of the heat pumps, in a specific room, increases when the outside temperature decreases. The electrical energy use efficiency for cooling by heat pumps EUE C is calculated by the following type:. If we focus only in the electricity cost demand of indoor vertical farms, lighting accounts to approx. Table 3 presents the estimated representative values of resource use efficiencies in an indoor vertical farm that use artificial lighting.

It could be concluded from Table 3 in comparison to Table 1 , that the relative production capacity per land area unit in an indoor vertical farm of 10 layers is 76 to times higher compared to traditional farming and 40 to 80 times higher compared to greenhouse production.

Indoor vertical farming is a type of farming which by definition is developed to provide enough production in order to meet the local demand in urban areas with continuous increased demand for fresh and nutritious fruits, vegetables and herbs. In general, the most frequently cultivated species are plants that have higher profitability and have a relatively high price.

A significant factor on crop selection is the crop to have a short production cycle in order to reduce the required electricity costs for lighting, heating and cooling of the crop and therefore can be harvested as early as possible. Additionally, growers prefer plants that have high harvested yield, meaning a high portion of the crop that can be harvested and sold.

For example in crops like lettuce and herbs, growers can harvest and sell the whole unit of the plant, while in tomatoes or peppers they can sell only the harvested fruit but at the same time. Therefore the electricity used for the rest of the plant, could be considered as a product waste.

Another key issue in crop selection is the height of the plants, meaning that it is way more preferable the crop to have a compact status in order to be able to reduce the growing distance between multiple plants and grow more at the same available area. Plants are also selected according to the perishability level that they present after harvesting and reaching the market. Since indoor vertical farms are mainly located in urban or suburban areas, their goal is to produce crops that can increase their self-life even of perishable crops , by shortening the harvesting and delivery time to the market.

Another parameter taken into account when selecting crops is the situation in the local market. If, for instance, tomatoes are missing for some reason from the market, then depending on the price they can get, they could be preferred against of another fruit or herb that is in abundance and its price cannot climb up. Finally, most suitable crops are those that have year-round productivity in order to be affordable for the farmers to have a year-round market demand that can be profitable despite the continuous operational expenses.

The constant production in a yearly basis of the same crop selection, allows also maintenance of the same, specific engineering settings of the crop, avoiding the modifications in the automations' selection that could cause abnormalities from a horticultural perspective. Due to the concept of indoor vertical farming and the technology used in the cultivation areas, growing in an urban environment do not advantage the crops due to possible shading of the building, non-fertile soils or dormant soils.

This fact can also be considered as one of the major drawbacks as the land price in urban areas is relatively high. Concerning this approach, indoor vertical farms are often installed in large warehouses, industrial factories or even abandoned buildings, where the prices are low. Based on Table 1 , Table 2 , Table 3 , it can be retrieved that the land use efficiency of indoor vertical farms 0. Adenaeuer mentions that the increase in yield between indoor vertical farms and traditional farming can be increased by 1.

Depending on the stacking area and the volume of harvest, cultivation care and crop preparation techniques, the work force can highly vary. Avgoustaki and Xydis , propose that 0. The same work force is required for a greenhouse production and approximately half of it for an open field farm.

More analytically, according to Savvas et al. Coastal ecosystems are by definition a highly active interface between human and natural infrastructures which is exposed to a number of potentially threatening human activities. Such impacts have recently been shown to have long-term deleterious effects such as the decrease of tidal marsh carbon sediment stocks due to human reclamation Ewers-Lewis et al. While the active integration of Blue Carbon ecosystems into sustainable policy frameworks supports natural CO 2 entrapment, it also could allow for indirect monitoring of these anthropogenic disturbances.

Coastal Blue Carbon ecosystems also present a key advantage by supplying multiple ecosystem services ES in addition to carbon sequestration, upon which climate and population security might rely Windham-Myers et al. Key ES provided by coastal carbon ecosystems include protection of coastal habitats which serve as feeding and nursery grounds for fish and shellfish, protection of coastal infrastructure for transportation, communication, dwelling, energy etc.

These ES are crucial for vulnerable communities that live near the shoreline or rely heavily on resources from these ecosystems 1. Connectivity between ecosystem services is a key challenge to policymakers along with site- and species-specific requirements. Viable policy frameworks which incorporate Blue Carbon ecosystems can mitigate climate change conflicts by sustainably using carbon ecosystems to support vulnerable communities, a method known as ecosystem-based adaptation EbA and a type of nature-based solution NbS.

Nature-based Solutions contribute to climate change mitigation on 3 fronts: reduction of GHG emissions, carbon capture and storage and socio-economic benefits of mitigation strategies Raghav et al. They can physically shield communities effectively and can be a key resource for survival: wetlands not only mitigate the impacts of floods and storms but can also provide water which is naturally stored for communities in need.

Attempts at replacing this protective service with man-made infrastructures have met with little success, high costs, and continuous ecosystem depletion. With the array of carbon ecosystems comes an array of processes by which carbon is sequestered from the medium from which it is extracted let it be air or water. This service is too often poorly understood as there is both a flow of carbon passing through this natural machinery through the process of sequestration as well as carbon stocks in relevant ecosystems Keith et al.

The real absolute quantity of carbon trapped in ecosystems can thus be poorly accounted for if these two phases are not taken into consideration. Often younger ecosystems are given priority while key older ones are destroyed along with their carbon storage. Carbon flow through open marine ecosystems is a cycle in which living components have dynamic movements.

Thus, carbon accounting must also avoid underestimating the transfer of allochthonous carbon, which has by definition traveled from its source habitat. Policy has commonly focused on carbon ecosystems in isolation to facilitate management without taking this transfer from source habitats into account. A contribution to sustaining the sequestration of marine carbon is through the conservation of marine vertebrates who support this cycle by transferring carbon from surface to deeper waters Smale et al.

Once identified, carbon-sequestering ecosystems must be a point of focus for both mitigation and conservation efforts, whether on local, national or global scales. For example, with shorter sea-ice durations and higher surface temperatures, entire areas of the Antarctic seafloor are offering a new alleyway for carbon sequestration, currently with very limited anthropogenic disturbance, causing highly productive benthic communities Fillinger et al.

However, human exploitation must be kept to a minimum through international policy efforts that should stand firmly in the face of commercial industry interests which would seek to exploit this newly freed and somewhat pristine part of the Southern Ocean for living and non-living resources Bax et al.

Gogarty et al. Market solutions that aim to highlight the value of regenerative natural systems can also be applied Chami et al. Policies based on a similar thinking ought to also be applied to high-seas and intertidal areas which are too often cast aside in MPA design. While key ecosystems must be identified and protected, artificial mechanisms can also be used to support their impact on climate change mitigation.

Negative Emissions Technologies NET might offer short-term mitigation, but their climate and environmental costs and benefits are yet to be ascertained for projects of sufficient scale to mitigate climate change. Only ocean fertilization has been reviewed so far and ascertained as ineffective in the short term Williamson et al.

Others include enhanced weathering, reforestation, bioenergy production with carbon capture and storage BECCS , carbon fixing in soils as well as direct air carbon capture and sequestration DACCS which has the advantage of presenting less adverse impacts Gambhir and Tavoni, NET are not alternatives for emission reduction or nature-based carbon conservation: they must imperatively be paired with strategies that protect carbon- sequestering ecosystems 2.

According to Pendleton et al. The degradation of coastal ecosystems each year releases between 0. Policy makers can shield key carbon cycles which are disturbed by anthropogenic activity through conservation frameworks. Ocean protection could yield several benefits alongside securing carbon stocks at risk from bottom trawling, such as supporting fisheries' yield and protecting biodiversity Sala et al.

Once disturbed, some functions of these ecosystems can still be restored and maintained. As mentioned above, ES can ensure climate security for local communities and restoration of carbon ecosystems has the potential to optimize these benefits. For nations that are small greenhouse gas emitters, addition of Blue Carbon habitat may offset their emissions as contributions to the Paris Agreement, but this cannot substantially address the global greenhouse gas problem.

However, once policy frameworks incorporate the challenges of restoration program mainly continuous funding, site- and species-specific requirements and extensive time frames Wilson and Forsyth, , they can have vast positive impacts on both habitats and populations. The valuation of protecting and restoring coastal ecosystems not only creates financial incentives while attracting investor interest but can also entail long-term investments into community development.

As Cziesielski et al. This is the founding principle of a sustainable Blue Economy 4. Coastal marine ecosystems could provide as much as two-thirds of the ecosystem services that make-up our planet's natural capital Cantral et al. Nevertheless, these services have been neglected through inadequate management, misled governance and gaps in social and scientific knowledge along with lack of local knowledge. A study reported by Quevedo et al. This explains partly why Pacific Island nations have been at the forefront of advancing ocean issues in climate policy.

For example, Chami et al. Recent discoveries in Red Sea mangrove forests suggest an underestimation of carbon sequestering potential due to the unaccounted-for positive impact of ocean acidification on the ocean's capacity to dissolve CO 2 Saderne et al. The economic value of ecosystem services is either determined from quantifiable resources directly derived from the ecosystem, a service which is vulnerable to disturbance or changes over time Fisher et al.

ES valuation has been criticized as it might overlook the complexity of the connectivity between services and non-pecuniary services of ecosystems regarding their aesthetics and importance in local culture Kosoy and Corbera, This might shift the focus of authorities from long-term social and environmental benefits to mainly financial returns. This perception of ES value can also change with different stakeholders and from regional to global scale Brown and Adger, From a welfare point of view, marine systems provide a regulatory carbon service with global impact.

The Exclusive Economic Zones EEZs in the Mediterranean basin have been used to estimate the wider economic impact of marine carbon sequestration in this area Canu et al. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea is a key global sink of CO 2 with an estimated overall flux of CO 2 of However, heterogeneity and lack of information on carbon market prices as well as failure to recognize the co-benefits that these ecosystems generate have limited their integration into economic valuations.

The absence of information on the real value of these ecosystems can lead to inefficient decision-making, often causing mismanagement Canu et al. In addition, EEZs form the limit of the UNFCCC jurisdiction, leaving most of the open ocean and deep sea unconsidered with respect to climate mitigation and adaptation. Moreover, the inclusion of social welfare variables in calculations of climate-change mitigating BCP impacts is now becoming key in policymaking related to open-ocean measures.

Such regulations can also aim at minimizing the social impacts of carbon release. Hazards related to poor management of carbon sequestering ecosystems have both market and non-market consequences which need to be incorporated into cost-benefit weighing of Blue Carbon.

The social cost of carbon SCC supports such cost-benefit evaluations of carbon emission mitigation policies. This process might be done using risk thresholds, independently from market-based economic impacts Metcalf and Stock, Integrated Assessment models IAMs , which so far only assess the risk of sea level rise, could present doubled levels of SCC with the inclusion of carbon-relevant ocean-related risks Narita et al.

Only a handful of papers have considered the economic value of changes in ecosystem services in deep waters. Others have highlighted the declining value of open ocean carbon sequestration in the eastern tropical Pacific Martin et al. No economic estimates have been done in the direct context of ocean acidification in the deep sea. Surface waters are rapidly transported into the deep ocean and CO 2 is definitely rising, with carbonate saturation state declining in some deep waters such as in the Arctic and North Atlantic Gehlen et al.

Ocean deoxygenation will likely impair fisheries resources Rose et al. Impacts of climate change are also expected to enhance carbon sequestration in key areas such as the Arctic and the Antarctic, where the decrease in ice will provide vast areas for carbon capture and longer blooms allow increasing sequestration in the Southern Ocean Barnes and Tarling, ; Bax et al.

Attracting the attention of the private sector provides opportunities to create sustainable business models that include social responsibility in order to invest in current carbon storage to comply with Paris agreements. Similarly, investment in natural climate solutions can support local communities and their ecosystems alike.

Within carbon markets, buyers of Blue Carbon credits could choose to finance projects in areas that support their supply chain. For example, seafood companies might invest in the protection or restoration of Blue Carbon ecosystems for reasons beyond carbon offsets, such as co-benefits like nursery habitat protection of harvested species, protection from extreme events, mitigation of erosion and salinization, and improvement of human livelihoods Vanderklift et al.

In a situation of uncertainty, such approaches can be called low- or no-regret, as their cost is relatively low and they would provide benefits with or without expected impacts of climate change Gattuso et al. The no-regret approach can be used at different social levels households, communities, and local, national and international institutions in order to increase resilience of social, economic and environmental policy benefits.

However, these frameworks and their associated benefits are often poorly quantified, limiting investment. Providing information on the associated benefits of Blue Carbon can help increase financing for climate action while new resources flow in Siegel and Jorgensen and Ullman et al.

Protection and restoration of highly productive Blue Carbon coastal ecosystems may guarantee first, the integrity of carbon storage and second, the long-term removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. It still remains challenging to trace the carbon sequestered back to its source and enhanced sequestration at the sink site needs to be assessed using management actions in source habitats such as macroalgae.

This cost-benefit approach common in financial investments can be used here to protect, invest in, and ultimately put these ecosystems on a sustainable path. But while the cost of conservation is well-understood and readily quantified, understanding the benefits of a vibrant natural world to our health and economic well-being depends on being able to show how natural resources, including species, habitats, and biodiversity, provide tangible value to humans Chami et al.

If we can reliably identify and measure the market-value of all the services provided by natural resources—such as carbon sequestration, flood control, fisheries support and more—we can then compare the present monetary value of these benefits with the cost of investing in them, just as we do for other financial assets.

An example of such an approach is provided by Chami et al. By conserving these species, there is a potential to maintain an ongoing carbon sequestration pathway which is potentially vast compared to other designated ecosystems. Conservation efforts targeting these species can thus be fuelled by the carbon sequestration cycle in each individual along with their natural market services. The resulting valuations can be quite effective at motivating environmental investment for several reasons.

First, they show exactly what concrete services society currently receives from our stock of natural resources, which helps the public understand the relevance of these resources for its daily life. In addition, expressing the benefits of preserving natural resources in monetary terms allows for a dollar-to-dollar cost-benefit comparison, which is important as people are more comfortable making decisions when the stakes are expressed in financial terms.

And finally, the value embodied in these natural assets can be very large—not only justifying the cost of preserving them, but also causing surprise and capturing the imagination of people who learn about the valuations. Behavioral economics research shows that people are more likely to purchase products or make investments that inspire these feelings Chami et al. Valuing the benefits of ecosystem services highlights the cost of doing nothing , or no-action , related to degradation of ecosystems.

In an estimation of global ES, Costanza et al. The core of restoration programs lies in our ability to quantify the value of Blue Carbon sequestration—also considering large uncertainty about methane emissions Rosentreter and Williamson, —which would lead to the acquisition of carbon credits by countries investing in the calculated restoration of specific coastal ecosystems with high carbon potential Kroeger et al.

Scientific research can fuel those strategies as we enter the Decade for Ocean Science for Sustainable Development upon which future mitigation actions are likely to rely IOC-R, Sustainable management of carbon sinks and the local communities which can benefit from them will also help nations meet their climate mitigation commitments. These include pledges taken under the umbrella of Nationally Appropriate Mitigations Actions NAMAS , especially relevant in rapidly evolving coastal ecosystems that are vulnerable to abiotic variations such as temperature increase, extreme events e.

A stricter approach to climate change mitigation using the full potential of Blue Carbon across a range of ecosystems will rely on international cooperation, as suggested by the G20 Task Force 2 Policy Brief by Mansouri et al. Blue growth is based on protection, conservation and investment in Blue natural capital, which, in turn, would lead to economic growth, but some aspects include highly destructive and climate-impairing practices like oil and gas extraction, or seabed mining.

Cziesielski et al. In their economic model, the environment sustainably managed was placed as the focal point of strategic development and other sectors industry, communication, education, etc. Direct and indirect public financing from international and regional organizations, states and local authorities can take the form of subsidies, grants, loans and transfers international public aid Levallois, However, these modalities are mainly coming from general fiscal budgets, for which matters depend on public decision and are highly vulnerable to discretion and competing priorities of decision-makers.

In this regard, the panorama of specific affected taxes going to ocean conservation still have extensive margins for improvement. Some examples exist but would need to be generalized to predict a scaled impact. This tax is paid by more than 7-meter long boats, which are relevant targets related to coastal impacts i.

This system gathers around It might be relevant to replicate these financial mechanisms for marine carbon conservation both open ocean and deep sea along with other targets. For instance, part of the product of existing port taxes could be dedicated to Blue economy investments. Even at low rates, the spectacular increase in sea traffic in the past decades and its associated impacts present increasingly important opportunities for financing cruises, commercial, transport, tankers, etc.

In any case, this framework would call for coordination between ports, cities and nations, through a highly competitive economy. A regional approach would be relevant to pilot activities before upscaling for instance European ports in the Mediterranean Sea. For example, carbon markets have arisen along with carbon pricing, a global trend triggered by increase in atmospheric CO 2 and in the destruction of carbon sinks.

Hence, carbon pricing can either be through Emissions Trading Schemes ETS , which facilitate the trade of permits for greenhouse gas emissions by capping the total level of emissions allowed; or carbon taxes, which set a price on carbon itself The World Bank, Cabon pricing discourages emissions Fankhauser and an Jotzo, and gives incentives to households, firms and governments to choose a more cost-effective way to reduce emissions Boyce, Carbon emissions from the degradation of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, seagrasses, and saltmarshes, however, are rarely included in emissions accounting or carbon regular markets and protocols.

In order to promote Blue Carbon projects in regulated carbon markets, reliable financial analyses must be taken into account to estimate Blue Carbon offsets, along with predictions of survival rates of new or restored vegetation in Blue Carbon ecosystems and measures of additional risks and benefits that could impede or enhance income flows positive and negative externalities.

In other words, a reliable scientific analysis of the permanence of these ecosystems must be carried out in order to guarantee that carbon is sequestered for long periods of time from 25 to years , without ecosystem degradation Thamo and Pannell, These scientific efforts include research on natural sequestration and degradation of Blue Carbon ecosystems, impacts of human activity on the carbon cycle, exchanges of carbon between terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, the development and advocacy of sustainable policies, the creation of protection protocols as well as economic analyses of Blue Carbon impacts IOC-R, Such an all-rounded approach can support existing and emerging carbon markets while calling for key ecosystem conservation and atmospheric carbon reduction.

Limiting loss of coastal ecosystems may be more beneficial than implementing extensive restoration efforts in regions with lower carbon benefits Pendleton et al. This is particularly relevant as the carbon sequestration potential of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves is often underestimated since it is based on measuring methods used for terrestrial ecosystems which do not account for root and soil sequestration potential. Adaptation plans are based on other services provided by Blue Carbon ecosystems such as protection from storm damage and flooding and the provision of resources, and the co-benefits that arise from them.

Nationally Determined Contributions NDCs under the Paris Agreement provide a framework for declaring climate change mitigation intent which must be revised and enhanced every 5 years. Ocean adaptation is seen more clearly in the initial NDCs across the globe than carbon sequestration Gallo et al. Synergy between climate adaptation and mitigation strategies within NDCs provides an optimal approach for Blue Carbon ecosystem management.

With the inclusion of carbon sequestration as an economic asset, well-rounded management planning for marine resources can benefit both a country's carbon emission mitigation strategy and its economic framework. Recognition of Blue Carbon benefits are growing in the ocean policy community. Blue Carbon mitigation efforts benefit from being incorporated into national strategies. In Madagascar, voluntary carbon markets, known to be better adapted for smaller-scale projects, are used across several project sites 6.

Similarly, wetland inclusion is encouraged but not mandatory in the IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories despite the advantages of including coastal ecosystems in a country's greenhouse gases inventories 7. Thus, heterogeneity in NDC commitments to Blue Carbon management has made worldwide policymaking challenging Laurans et al. As explained by the Blue Carbon and NDC Guidelines developed by the Blue Carbon initiative 8 , ecosystems can benefit NDCs by adding to the national green house gas emission mitigation strategies, providing ecosystem services to benefits local areas and communities, fuelling NDC achievements during the 5-year period, encouraging cross-sectorial efforts on the coasts to reach NDC goals particularly in NDCs which incorporate Coastal Zone Management and supporting Sustainable Blue Economies.

NDC inclusion of coastal ecosystems also encourages external financial support and climate finance for their sustainable management 2. Coastal ecosystems need to be a part of a country's economic framework. A distinction among ecosystems during valuation calculation is important because certain habitats e.

On the other hand, some vegetated coastal habitats have adaptive abilities and restoration capacities that could be invested in at minimal costs Gedan et al. This allows for strategies that relate to the maintenance of particular ecosystems such as the removal of anthropogenic nutrients in coastal habitats, the control of bioperturbator populations and the restoration of hydrology to increase carbon accumulation Macreadie et al.

Such restoration programs can also offset sequestered carbon losses due to damages, if properly managed, via processes of ocean zoning and marine spatial planning Irving et al. Greiner et al. Hejnowicz et al. Despite recent developments in international policies regarding the protection of marine resources for climate change mitigation, results will only be achieved if there is ownership by local actors.

Legal and territorial planning frameworks, including social responsibility, must be defined on coastal compensation sites Thamo and Pannell, This territorial perspective on governance might integrate potentially contradictory points of views but must define joint common responses. Examples include the Earth Security report on Mangrove financing, presenting a case for investment in mangrove restoration using a network of 40 key cities which can focus on mangrove protection while carbon markets evolve to reach global importance.

This requires integration of information and data across institutions on national levels as well as local representation of ministries , along with the coordination of local authorities and participation of communities and economic stakeholders in public decision. On the one hand, financial incentives for carbon compensation are able to attract short-term funds but are not necessarily adapted to local expectations and remain lacking in local knowledge and input.

Territorial planning with a community perspective can be adapted to local needs, becoming an efficient source of long-term development, but lacking in economic power. These often-opposing approaches would warrant the role of public institutions to foster dialogue and guarantee sustainability, in order to develop complementary practices.

Involving local populations in governance of ecosystem management plans allows for Blue Carbon to support a steady resource flow into local communities beyond current fragmented financing plans. In open-ocean ecosystems, management of carbon stocks is also challenged by the movement of carbon across the water column and national and jurisdictional borders Luisetti et al. Though occurring naturally, these movements can also be triggered by anthropogenic activities indiscriminately impacting sediment delivery in the water Crooks et al.

Little is known about valuation of carbon as a transboundary resource and the uncertainty regarding the origin of the carbon makes its valuation challenging. Activities in such areas are under the control of the International Seabed Authority and shall take into account the principle of protection and conservation of natural resources. This question calls for international innovative coordination and joint strategies, in order to avoid habitat degradation that releases carbon and ensure the integrity of carbon cycling and sequestration.

The potential international support granted to Blue Carbon rich countries is one of many incentives arising with cross-sectorial carbon management Chan, Climate change considerations and carbon conservation could be addressed by elements of the ongoing Marine Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction BBNJ treaty negotiations such as area-based management tools including MPAs , and environmental impact assessment, but climate issues have not risen to a high priority in this historic negotiation Tessnow-von Wysocki and Vadrot, The modernization of joint coordination strategies among different states, and for international waters, among different UN agencies, is necessary in order to define achievable, realistic, and progressive protocols agreements.

These would not be sectoral but comprehensive, with an integrated management perspective involving coastal ecosystems, open water and deep-sea ecosystems with environmental, social and economic questions. Even the UN Conference of Parties COP has been shown to benefit from restructuring approaches in order to adapt to the evolving climate crisis and the stakeholders impacted by and involved with its outcomes Ferrer et al.

Coherency is mandatory to achieve long-term results across domains of fishery management, biodiversity conservation, transport and tourism policing. It is indispensable to foster real management plans from a local level including methods of ecosystem engineering, the ecological enhancement of marine Blue infrastructure to an international level development of MPAs, marine spatial planning MSP , transnational protected areas and creation of cross-border online platforms for carbon and biodiversity offsets.

Platform such as the Ocean and Climate Change dialogue support discussions which can strengthen a common understanding of the gravity of the situation across stakeholders and scale of impact UNFCCC, Sustainable management of transboundary marine resources through integrated approaches presents a unique opportunity to avoid conflicts and develop cooperation for shared benefits.

Transboundary water pollution and climate change are key areas for improvement Giupponi and Gain, Marine ecosystems have no borders and acknowledging connectivity between ecosystems is essential to sustainably manage and develop marine resources to their maximum potential. Thus, marine management can be an opportunity to develop cooperation.

Potential approaches include leaders' training programs with the goal to increase awareness with clear and precise communication about the value of Blue Natural Capital, along with clear transboundary management strategies for marine resources with a transboundary diagnostic analysis, and pertinent and achievable strategic action programs Cziesielski et al.

Environmental measures should tackle, both, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, with one as a continuum of the other. Coral reef restoration can increase coastal resilience to sea level rise and flooding and provide valuable environmental services for local populations Hamerkop, From the opposite direction, water pollution in rivers contributes to ocean ecosystem degradation, via eutrophication and the formation of dead zones.

River basin management planning and associated financial mechanisms must integrate the relationship between freshwater resources and marine ecosystems. Holistic and integrative concepts are key to account for differences in representation. NbS can make impactful changes if built for the long-term and continuously measured with the right metrics to support a range of ecosystems and their local communities' rights and needs Girardin et al.

The success of NbS implementation will depend on close collaboration between a wide range of stakeholders and polycentric governance structure as well as on the clarification of values and interests they have in common Martin et al. Outlining specific policy targets for NbS throughout the project duration can strengthen the effectiveness of these strategies OECD, This collaborative approach would include citizens, partnerships with environmental organizations and universities, private and public sector and community action and engagement Cohen-Shacham et al.

As mentioned above, local actors are key to the long-term success and development of Blue Carbon ecosystem management schemes, particularly as million people worldwide now live near mangroves UNEP, Moreover, the Markets and Mangrove project directly links income for the community and mangrove ES, as shrimp farmers now have financial incentives to protect mangroves, with the assurance of higher revenues from their newly obtained organic certification McEwin and McNally, ; Wylie et al.

Similarly, the mangrove restoration program Mikoko Pamoja 9 in Kenya uses sales from carbon credits to support schooling and the provision of piped water in the community Wylie et al. Socio Manglar Ecuador , a program in which communities receive cash directly for their sustainable management of mangrove forests Herr et al. As previously stated, ES, including carbon sequestration, have a number of costs and benefits which are likely better defined by local populations Bennett, However, they have been vastly excluded from decision-making processes so far Hejnowicz et al.

Ownership and accountability are often an obstacle to community-led governance but can be mitigated by introducing external parties such as research institutes to oversee operations Vanderklift et al. Wider scale policies, however, risk the exclusion of local communities from decision-making and governance, a better understanding of the social impact of Blue Carbon has proven widely successful in specific localizations so far.

Time presents a challenge for these integrative processes: ecosystem service assessments must be adapted to the timeline of policy decision-making Ruckelshaus et al. Overall, successful mitigation plans rely on science to tackle knowledge gaps with branching approaches such as the Integrated Ocean Carbon research IOC-R, , funding from investors whose interests are well-understood Vanderklift et al. These sustainable long-term impacts support poverty alleviation while protecting key ecosystems and mitigating climate change.

Thus, sustainable biodiversity and ecosystem management can provide a foundation upon which to build strategies for poverty alleviation and sustainable community maintenance and growth Bawa et al. In order to meet the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals 14 conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources and 13 take urgent measures to combat climate change and its impacts , Marine Spatial planning MSP not only focuses on reducing carbon emissions but must also contribute to net zero commitments of a country.

MSP also generates collateral benefits such as the promotion of gender equality, solid and more sustainable rural livelihoods and production of new jobs among others. These systemic co-benefits promote public participation, information sharing and dissemination in order to raise awareness of climate justice. Furthermore, MSP is a platform upon which local populations can develop a direct line of contact with government institutions, local authorities and the private sector with the aim to preserve marine ecosystems and reap economic benefits.

This opportunity empowers communities, which can build their capacity to shift natural sourcing practices toward more sustainable paradigms that could be achieved due to increased awareness and education programs Cantral et al. The implementation of Marine Protected Areas MPAs has risen over the last decades as a promising option to mitigate climate change impacts on carbon removal processes, as long as regulation strategies guaranty the integrity of natural carbon stores Jones et al.

MPAs have emerged as important governance responses to coordinate ecosystem management, resource utilization and biodiversity conservation, and they currently represent 5. MPAs offer more financial stability than carbon markets by securing resource supply and stable regulations Thomas et al. These are achieved through cross-sectorial efforts and agreements on jurisdiction and accountability Howard et al. This reliability makes MPAs sustainably beneficial to a country's overall GHG emissions accounting, providing further incentives for their conservation.

Protection of the carbon services provided by the coastal ecosystems remains challenged by governance boundaries such as the UNFCCC and competing societal needs. In addition, some ecosystem services provided by open-ocean ecosystems are not yet replaceable by human industries, highlighting the importance of protection.

Policymaking has focused on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests, salt marshes and seagrass meadows, disregarding the potential of open-ocean and deep-sea ecosystems to provide support to mitigation efforts. Scotland has begun to view the potential of Blue Carbon as an incentive in its own right for the implementation of MPAs so it can be directly considered by marine management, both on regional and national scales Laffoley, Incentives for the protection of key areas include other ecosystem services provided as well as social benefits derived from ocean protection inclusion in national policies.

MPAs continue to present potential for wider protection of key areas, facilitating governance issues and financing opportunities; but there is a need for international frameworks to step in in order to account for the movement of carbon through national borders and to facilitate cost-effectiveness and economic accountability of ocean-based measures.

In both cases, Blue Carbon needs to be an incentive for ecosystem protection in its own right, both recognized and sustainably considered by marine management regulations. Deep-sea ecosystems offer potential for long-term carbon storage in stable conditions, offering yet another path toward climate change mitigation in open waters, along with an array of other ecosystem services.

However, the complexity of deep-sea carbon storage presents two main challenges: 1 data regarding the level of risk which can be sustained by these ecosystems and the practical economic valuation of their carbon services as opposed to emission risks is lacking and 2 these ecosystems are currently vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance but MPAs can alleviate this risk and contribute to sustainable management practices.

The Paris Agreement requires serious commitment at a country and industry level to achieve carbon neutrality by if the world is to avoid breaching the 1. This looming deadline places demands onto all stakeholders to neutralize and offset carbon emissions. Among potential answers are nature-based solutions, which play a key role in maintaining active carbon sequestration processes and preventing human assisted-nature-based emissions e.

Because they are both accessible and co-beneficial for local communities, blue nature-based solutions should be paired with dramatically increased efforts to reduce GHG emissions. Similar to terrestrial carbon in forests, the ocean captures carbon in a range of ecosystems coastal, deep sea and open ocean which often offer other services with shared benefits across the society. This paper suggests how these various ocean ecosystems could support mitigation strategies and carbon stock conservation when sustainably managed across sectors.

Financing from stakeholders, who would benefit from ecosystem services as well as from carbon credits, requires a transparent and credible system for managing such a market. These conservation efforts can only succeed if local communities are part of the decision-making process, where they stand to directly benefit from the meaningful employment and steady income that would help ensure ownership of these efforts.

The COVID crisis has clearly demonstrated the consequences of poor management of the natural world. Many believe that COP26 in November is the best last chance to get the climate change risk under control. We argue that ocean solutions are a key part of the mix and hope that the protection and restoration of marine carbon stocks and sequestration processes will be part of the COP26 discussions since this will also help address the marine biodiversity crisis and reduce risks of impacts to critical ocean system functions.

The post-pandemic period presents an opportunity to reboot our paths to economic development by taking into account the potential and the value of ocean system services, starting with integrated policies tied to economic, social and environmental recovery strategies.

Global partnerships leading to immediate actions are needed to pair social protection with climate action and economic recovery, in order to rebuild and transform economies from an ecological standpoint. NH and LL led the work. All the authors contributed to the manuscript and revised the final manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

The authors thank Dr. Lina Maria Rassmusson for her constructive comments on a draft of this paper. Phillip Williamson and Valeria Guinder are thanked for their input during initial formulation and structuring of this manuscript. The authors also thank Rashid Sumaila and Cheri Hebert for allowing the use of certain pictures that are part of Figure 1.

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Polar oceans in a changing climate. Bawa, K. Opinion: envisioning a biodiversity science for sustaining human well-being. PNAS , — Bax, N. Perspective: increasing blue carbon around Antarctica is an ecosystem service of considerable societal and economic value worth protecting. Bayraktarov, E. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Beeston, M. Blue Carbon: Mind the Gap. Geneva: Gallifrey Foundation. Google Scholar. Bennett, J. Gifted places: the inalienable nature of belonging in place.

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An asset is something that is expected to yield a benefit in a future period.

Standard rate of return on investment The potential international support granted to Blue Carbon rich countries is one of many incentives arising with cross-sectorial carbon management Chan, Examples of assets these intangible assets are:. Hence, carbon pricing can either be through Emissions Trading Schemes ETSwhich facilitate the trade of permits for greenhouse gas emissions by capping the total level of emissions allowed; or carbon taxes, which set a price on carbon itself The World Bank, Drip irrigation has the advantage of saving large water amounts and also can control and maintain the humidity levels of the soil or the hydroponic substrate in constant levels. Conservation efforts targeting these species can thus be fuelled by the carbon sequestration cycle in each individual along with their natural market services.
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Cash flow from investing activities equation for photosynthesis Meanwhile, vertical farms may be able to increase the productivity rate in highly urbanized areas that can lead to improvements in the food security of source community. This service is too often poorly understood as there is both a flow of carbon passing through this natural machinery through the process of sequestration as well as carbon stocks in relevant ecosystems Keith et al. PLoS Biol. These often-opposing approaches would warrant the role of public institutions to foster dialogue and guarantee sustainability, in order to develop complementary practices. Drip irrigation is one of the most popular irrigation techniques in greenhouses. In Madagascar, voluntary carbon markets, known to be better adapted for smaller-scale projects, are used across several project sites 6. Indoor vertical farms use artificial lighting as radiation source in order to cover the demand of plants for growth and development via photosynthesis.

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